Psychometric properties of the School Participation Questionnaire: Testing a measure of participation-related constructs


To explore concurrent validity, convergent validity, interrater reliability, test-retest reliability, and Rasch model analysis of the School Participation Questionnaire (SPQ), a tool for teachers to assess personal and environmental determinants of school participation.


Teachers of children with additional support needs, including intellectual disability, autism, and learning difficulties completed measures. Data were collected using the SPQ and the Participation and Environment Measure for Children and Youth (PEM-CY). Test-retest and interrater reliability were assessed using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs). Internal consistency was assessed with Cronbach's alpha. Concurrent and convergent validity were explored via correlations with the PEM-CY. Further psychometrics were examined using a Rasch model.


One hundred and eighty-seven children (136 [72.7%] male; mean age 9y [range 5y 6mo-12y 10mo, SD 2y]) were assessed by 67 teachers. Cronbach's alpha, test-retest, and interrater reliability were acceptable-excellent across each SPQ scale (alphas=0.89, 0.9, 0.94, 0.79; test-retest ICCs=0.64, 0.61, 0.78, 0.62; interrater ICCs=0.85, 0.71, 0.90, 0.81). Concurrent and convergent validity were confirmed with significant positive correlations between SPQ and PEM-CY. After Mokken and Rasch model analysis, person and item reliability were good, and unidimensionality was confirmed. Mean administration time was 8.2 minutes.


The results suggest that the SPQ is a rapid, reliable, and valid tool for assessment of participation-related indicators in schools.

Reference Maciver, D., Tyagi, V., Johnston, L., Kramer, J. M., Richmond, J., Todorova, L., Romero-Ayuso, D., Nakamura-Thomas, H., van Hartingsveldt, M., O'Hare, A., & Forsyth, K. (2022). Psychometric properties of the School Participation Questionnaire: Testing a measure of participation-related constructs. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology, 64(7), 847-854.
Published by  Urban Vitality 1 July 2022

Publication date

Jul 2022


Donald Maciver
Vaibhav Tyagi
Lorna Johnston
Jessica M. Kramer
Janet Richmond
Liliya Todorova
Dulce Romero-Ayuso
Hiromi Nakamura-Thomas
Anne O'Hare
Kirsty Forsyth


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