Hogeschool van Amsterdam

Urban Vitality

Validation of a full body 3-D dynamic linked segment model


Abstract: In studies related to human movement, linked segment models (LSM's) are often used to quantify forces and torques, generated in body joints. Some LSM's represent only a few body segments. Others, for instance used in studies on the control of whole body movements, include all body segments. As a consequence of the complexity of 3-dimensional (3-D) analyses, most LSM's are restricted to one plane of motion. However, in asymmetric movements this may result in a loss of relevant information. The aim of the current study was to develop and validate a 3-D LSM including all body segments.

Braces with markers, attached to all body segments, were used to record the body movements. The validation of the model was accomplished by comparing the measured with the estimated ground reaction force and by comparing the torques at the lumbo-sacral joint that resulted from a bottom-up and a top-down mechanical analysis. For both comparisons, reasonable to good agreement was found. Sources of error that could not be analysed this way, were subjected to an additional sensitivity analysis. It was concluded that the internal validity of the current model is quite satisfactory.


Kingma, I., Looze, M. P. d., Toussaint, H. M., Klijnsma, H. G., & Bruijnen, T. B. M. 'Validation of a full body 3-D dynamic linked segment model'. In: Human Movement Science, 15, 833-860, 1996.

Gepubliceerd door  Kenniscentrum Bewegen, Sport en Voeding 1 september 1996


sep 1996


Lector Huub Toussaint