Urban Broadband Internet Policies in Europe: A critical Review
In this paper, urban broadband policies are critically reviewed. Cities and regions in Europe play an increasingly active role in the provision of broadband electronic infrastructure. We present a typology of local/regional broadband policies, based on a number of examples from European cities. We discuss the pro's and cons of various types of intervention, confront the case studies with the arguments listed in the literature, and critically evaluate the policies. Among other things, we conclude that policies are too easiliy justified with "loose" arguments of economic and social benefits, and that too often, policymakers fail to take a technology and supplier neutral approach, which may have perverse impacts in the long run.