The development of ICT clusters in European cities
Towards a typology
The information and communication technology (ICT) sector is at the centre of interest to cities. In the 1990s, many of them invested heavily in developing and attracting this promising sector. Almost every city has developed and implemented ambitious policies to promote the local ICT sector. But not every city has benefited to the same extent from its rapid growth: there are substantial quantitative and qualitative differences between urban regions. This study reviews the development of ICT clusters across Europe, and assesses the role of local and national policies in this field. It highlights the diversity of cluster development paths in different local and national contexts.