European cities in the knowledge economy: towards a typology
The shift towards a knowledge-based economy seems to favour some well-endowed urban areas. However, not all cities benefit equally. This paper discusses the shift towards a knowledge-based economy in different types of European city, and derives policy conclusions for local and national governments. An integrative frame of analysis is developed and applied to a number of cities in north-west Europe. The paper reveals large differences in the ability of cities to benefit from the shift towards a knowledge economy and describes and comments on current policy responses.